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cbd biverkningar

Hästar med kronisk ortopedisk smärta behandlas vanligtvis systemiskt med icke-steroida antiinflammatoriska läkemedel (NSAID). Medicinering med NSAID kan leda till allvarliga biverkningar i
form av gastrointestinala störningar som magsår och kolit.
Ett potentiellt framtida alternativ till NSAID kan vara cannabidiol (CBD), en organisk förening utvunnen ur plantan Cannabis sativa. Cannabis används sedan flera tusen år inom läkekonsten för
behandling av bland annat smärta och illamående. Utöver CBD innehåller plantan Δ9- tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC). Till skillnad från CBD har THC psykogen verkan vilket bidragit till rekreationellt bruk av cannabis. På humansidan i Sverige finns idag två godkända läkemedel med CBD
som aktiv substans, varav det ena även innehåller THC. Då ingen omfattande studie har gjorts gällande CBD-administrering till häst är kunskapsläget ytterst begränsat.
Studiens syfte var att studera huruvida CBD har en smärtlindrande effekt hos hästar med kronisk
ortopedisk smärta manifesterad som kronisk hälta samt biverkningsprofilen av oralt administrerad
CBD till häst. Mot ovanstående bakgrund rekryterades en kroniskt halt häst för att undersöka
huruvida CBD har analgetisk effekt på kroniskt halta hästar. Hästen administrerades 10 % cannabidiol olja, 1 mg/kg per os via en nässvalgssond. Därefter utvärderades hästens hälta kontinuerligt
med hjälp av variabeln Range Up Difference (RUD) Pelvis från den objektiva rörelseanalysen Qualisys® och utifrån smärtprotokollet the Composite Pain Scale (CPS). Blodprov togs för analys av
hematologi. Två veckor efter CBD-behandling gjordes en kontrollomgång där hästen utvärderades
i Qualisys® och smärtbedömdes vid motsvarande tidpunkter som vid behandlingsomgång.
Fyra timmar efter CBD-administration fick hästen kolik vilket inte kan uteslutas som eventuell biverkning. Inga andra eventuella biverkningar noterades. Medelvärdet av RUD Pelvis visade att hältan var som minst fyra timmar efter CBD-administrering. Enligt denna studie kan CPS inte anses
vara ett tillfredsställande protokoll för bedömning av smärta för kronisk smärta hos häst.
Resultatet av denna pilotstudie kan tyda på att CBD eventuellt skulle kunna ha analgetiska effekter
på kroniskt halta hästar men med kolik som möjlig biverkning. Då pilotstudien, med endast en häst,
är ytterst begränsad ska försiktighet iakttas avseende slutsatserna. Vidare studier på effekt av oral
CBD till häst efterlyses, såväl gällande smärtlindring som biverkningsprofil.

Malmgren, Anna , 2021. Smärtlindring och beteendeeffekter vid oralt administrerad cannabidiol till häst : en pilotstudie. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health (

Horses with chronic pain are often treated systemically with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAID). This treatment could in some cases lead to serious adverse effects, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract manifested as ulcers and colitis.
A future potential alternative to NSAID treatment could be cannabidiol (CBD), an organic compound from the plant Cannabis sativa. In human medicine cannabis has been used for thousands of
years due to its analgesic, anticonvulsive and antiemetic properties. Besides CBD, the plant contains
a compound called Δ9-tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC). Contrary to CBD, THC has psychoactive properties and has contributed to the recreational use of cannabis. In Sweden there are currently two
approved drugs for human medicine containing CBD alone or CBD in combination with THC. Since
no extensive studies have yet been conducted regarding the use of CBD in horses the state of
knowledge is limited.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether CBD has an analgetic effect in chronic lame horses
as well as identifying occurrence of possible adverse effects followed by oral administration of CBD.
Against this background one horse with established lameness was recruited to investigate whether
CBD provides analgesic for chronic lame horses. The horse was given 10 % cannabidiol oil, 1
mg/kg, orally through a nasogastric tube. After administration the lameness of the horse was evaluated continuously with the objective lameness detector Qualisys® regarding the Range Up Difference (RUD) Pelvis value and with the pain scale the Composite Pain Scale (CPS). Blood samples
were taken to analyse haematology. Two weeks after the CBD treatment a control study was made
in which the horse was analysed in Qualisys® and by CPS at times corresponding to the CBD treatment.
Four hours after CBD-administration the horse showed symptoms of colic which cannot be ruled
out as a possible adverse effect. No other possible adverse effects were observed. The mean values
of RUD Pelvis showed that the lameness was at its mildest four hours after CBD administration.
According to this study CPS was not considered a satisfactory pain scale for chronic pain assessment.
The result of this pilot study may indicate that CBD could potentially have an analgesic effect on
chronic lame horses but with colic as a possible adverse effect. Since the pilot study, involving only
one horse, is extremely limited, the conclusions should be interpreted with major caution. Further
studies regarding both analgesic and adverse effects associated with oral CBD administration in
horses are required.

Abstract

CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.

CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently covered in the media, and you may have even seen it as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. What exactly is CBD? Why is it suddenly so popular?

Is CBD safe?

CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.

Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So, you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.

CBD is commonly used to address anxiety, and for patients who suffer through the misery of insomnia, studies suggest that CBD may help with both falling asleep and staying asleep.

Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.

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