Research has shown that CBD may help treat digestive issues , causing bloating during premenstrual symptoms. CBD’s ability to regulate bowel movements and minimize inflammation in the digestive tract may explain the cannabinoid’s effect on bloating from PMS.
Another study looked at how various doses of CBD affected animals. Rhesus monkeys of both sexes took oral CBD doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg for 90 days. Serum pituitary, steroid, and thyroid hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay method. CBD-treated monkeys responded with slight fluctuations in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males, whereas steroid hormones were essentially unchanged in both sexes. Hormone imbalance may explain cannabinoid-induced embryotoxicity and impaired gonadal function.
Estrogens are the collective name for a whole group of related hormones. Let’s get acquainted with three prominent representatives:
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Anastasiia Myronenko is a Medical Physicist actively practicing in one of the leading cancer centers in Kyiv, Ukraine. She received her master’s degree in Medical Physics at Karazin Kharkiv National University and completed Biological Physics internship at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Germany. Anastasiia Myronenko specializes in radiation therapy and is a fellow of Ukrainian Association of Medical Physicists.
The ECS regulates stress, mood, memory, fertility, bone growth, pain, and immune function, among other things. If speaking about feminine health, carefully controlled regulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is required for successful reproduction. The exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may help to keep and regulate the ECS’ delicate balance in the female reproductive system.
As pregnancy is a wonderful period in any woman’s life, still, there are some minor difficulties that every woman has to face: morning sickness, sleeplessness, stress, and joint pain.
An early review by the WHO suggests that CBD oil use is generally safe and effective for certain conditions, but conclusive research into the efficacy and safety during pregnancy hasn’t been done. So far, it is just known that marijuana use is unrecommended. Even a small amount of THC (in some CBD products) can pass through the placenta and cause developmental problems. So if you are still not confident, talk to your doctor and remember that it is always better to stick to the mindset of “better to be safe than sorry”!
Endocannabinoid activity as well as CB1 receptor function fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle. In humans, the amount of anandamide circulating is higher during the follicular phase and highest during ovulation, while being lower during the luteal phase. It appears that the endocannabinoid system is significant in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and indeed does play a role in fertility. Various components of the endocannabinoid system have been found in the ovaries and uterus, and levels vary in a set manner during the time of embryo implantation. Data suggests that low anandamide levels are a requirement for implantation and for carrying a pregnancy to term, while high levels of anandamide facilitates the labor process. In fact, it has been found that during pregnancy there are low levels of anandamide present and a surge occurs near the time of labor onset. As well, with increased levels of anandamide or if an agonist of it is given results in early pregnancy, a higher rate of miscarriages in humans is seen.
The CB1 receptors are in the presynaptic neurons on the axon terminals. The endocannabinoids themselves are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons. When the receptors are bonded with the ligand endocannabinoids, the release of additional neurotransmitters by the presynaptic cell is blocked, thereby allowing regulation of neurotransmission of incoming signals. FAAH, fatty acid amide hydrolase, is an enzyme which breakdowns anandamide and monoacylglycerol lipase breakdowns 2- AG, controlling quantities. FAAH is under the control of estradiol.
The endocannabinoid system is a key physiological system, involved in the foundation of health maintenance. The receptors are found in the brain, in numerous organs, connective tissue, glands, and in immune cells. It has complex actions on the immune system, the nervous system, and in all the organs within the body, and can be viewed as a powerful connection between the body and the mind. The endocannabinoid system literally links the state of physicality and disease to brain functioning. The endocannabinoid system, whether through naturally made endocannabinoids or marijuana and its derivatives, or similar plant-derived cannabis, impacts humans in ways that are immensely complex and challenging.
The trend towards the legalization of marijuana and the increasing use of this herbal product and its oils (CBD) for both recreational and therapeutic uses begs a question: What impact does it have on sex hormones and reproductive functions, as well as on other critical health issues, such as cognition and immune health? Cannabis sativa has long been a widely consumed plant recognized for its psychoactive properties and its reported impact on multiple functions, including metabolism, sexual functioning, and motivation. In the 1960’s tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was identified as the primary active component of cannabis, but the site of action was not known until the discovery of the cannabinoid receptor.
The endocannabinoid system and estrogens have both direct and indirect interactions. The endocannabinoid system impacts the release of estrogens through the central down-regulation of LH and GnRH. When THC is given, there is a decrease in serum LH, and the pulsatile nature of LH is decreased. When GnRH was given to female rats, the effects of THC were reversed. This is suggestive that as the pituitary gland remains sensitive to stimulation, the impact of cannabinoids is through its effects on central neurotransmission, suppressing LH release. The suppression of LH release by THC has been demonstrated in monkeys and rats. It is complex and variable by brain region and even by synapses, but changes to the function of estrogen do influence central endocannabinoid signaling. There is clearly a complex interrelationship between endocannabinoid activity and estradiol levels. It certainly appears that the use of an exogenous cannabinoid could adversely impact the hormonal cycling and fertility of females.
Brain endocannabinoids have been recognized as major modulators of affect, motivation, and emotions, and the emerging connection to estradiol, and the other sex hormones, is only recently emerging and must now be recognized for their great significance in the functioning of this critical body system. We live in a world of endocrine disruptors, including pharmaceuticals which in fact are endocrine disruptors themselves – such as metformin, oral contraceptives, “hormonal” IUDs and implantables – and we should additionally recognize the inevitable and universal impact of menopause on the endocannabinoid system and its impact on women’s emotional regulation.
Estradiol administration in female rats elicits anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Studies show that the impact on emotions which are due to estradiol are elicited through the endocannabinoid system. Research on the emotional and behavioral effects involved in the interplay between the endocannabinoid system and estradiol show that estradiol incorporates the endocannabinoid system in its behavioral effects and can down-regulate FAAH activity in the CNS, thereby increasing the levels of anandamide. Further confirming these findings are studies showing that when a CB1 receptor antagonist was given to rats, the anxiolytic effect of estradiol was blocked, and when a blocker of FAAH (the enzyme which degrades anandamide) was given, and levels of the endocannabinoid rose, and an anxiolytic effect occurred, precisely like that produced by estradiol.
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There are cannabinoid receptors in the digestive system, and research confirms that the ECS is involved in the physiological control of colonic motility. CBD could, therefore, help with bloating issues by increasing gut motility.
CBD and the endocannabinoid system
An enzyme (COX-2) is responsible for prostaglandin production. CBD inhibits COX-2 and can lower the level of COX-2 that you produce, thereby reducing inflammation, pain, and cramps.
Dr Moltke goes on to explain, ‘We are still highly lacking human studies that show exactly how this manifests in our different hormonal systems.’
They may be small, but they’re mighty. A slight excess or deficiency of a particular hormone can lead to health issues.