Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So, you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
CBD is readily obtainable in most parts of the United States, though its exact legal status is in flux. All 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with varying degrees of restriction, and while the federal government still considers CBD in the same class as marijuana, it doesn’t habitually enforce against it. In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory requirements to allow researchers to conduct CBD trials. Currently, many people obtain CBD online without a medical cannabis license. The government’s position on CBD is confusing, and depends in part on whether the CBD comes from hemp or marijuana. The legality of CBD is expected to change, as there is currently bipartisan consensus in Congress to make the hemp crop legal which would, for all intents and purposes, make CBD difficult to prohibit.
Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.
Is CBD safe?
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently covered in the media, and you may have even seen it as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. What exactly is CBD? Why is it suddenly so popular?
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."
More recently, CBD has been shown to have powerful effects on some patients suffering from seizure disorders. CBD-based treatments have been accepted as highly safe and effective for some younger patients whose epilepsy is resistant to conventional treatment.
Over the last few years, doctors have launched small-scale CBD studies and CBD clinical trials to find other potential uses for the compound. CBD is gaining notoriety as a potential treatment for a variety of mood disorders, especially generalized anxiety. It may even help PTSD sufferers.
What Conditions Can CBD Treat or Cure?
Because CBD has only recently entered the medical mainstream, there are still many unanswered questions to be explored. Early research focused on the role of cannabinoid receptors in the brain in perceiving and processing CBD, as well as its effect on the brain’s production of dopamine.
CBD has a very long history as a treatment for those suffering from intense chronic pain. In particular, it is valuable for patients who cannot benefit from traditional medications as a result of damaged organs or a compromised immune system.
CBD has rapidly become a popular area of medical study for several reasons. First, it does not produce a high in patients who use it. Second, it does not appear to cause any symptoms of chemical dependency. A low potential for abuse or addiction makes it highly promising.
This is one of several reasons why researchers caution against self-medication with CBD products targeted at consumers. CBD is available in shops worldwide, but the legality of such sales varies widely. In Canada, selling cannabis and its derivatives is legal, whereas the European Union authorizes the sale of CBD derived from hemp (low-THC varieties of cannabis) but not from marijuana (high-THC cannabis). In the United States, the latest Farm Bill, which was enacted in 2018, potentially legalizes the production of CBD from hemp under certain conditions — although the sale of CBD products generally remains ostensibly illegal. Regardless of the legal situation at the federal level, CBD commercialization remains something of a free-for-all in the United States — individual states are making their own laws, and the FDA has taken only limited action to enforce federal laws on CBD. “They’ve sent some notices to companies that have made medical claims, but that’s about it,” says Marcel Bonn-Miller, a psychologist at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and global scientific director at Canopy Growth Corporation, a cannabis company in Smiths Falls, Canada. (An FDA spokesperson responded that the agency “is working quickly to continue to clarify our regulatory authority over products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds like CBD”.)
Forty years on from Mechoulam’s initial work, extensive randomized controlled trials have decisively shown that this purified cannabinoid can profoundly benefit children with certain epileptic disorders. “Over those trials, we saw about a 26–28% reduction in frequency over placebo in all convulsive seizures for Dravet syndrome and drop seizures for Lennox–Gastaut syndrome,” says Devinsky, who has led several such studies 4 , 5 . “Some of the patients became, and remain, seizure-free.”
“In New York City, you can go to a latte shop and get a CBD product, but if I want to do a clinical trial, I’ve got to get a 2,000-pound safe and go through six months of paperwork and licensing,” says Orrin Devinsky, director of the NYU Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in New York City. Like the cannabis plant from which it is derived, CBD, a type of cannabinoid, is classified by the US Drug Enforcement Administration in the same way as are heroin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) — schedule 1 substances with “high potential for abuse” and “no currently accepted medical use”.
A difficult delivery
Cannabidiol oil has purported health benefits, including helping to relieve chronic pain. Credit: Don Bartletti/Los Angeles Times/Getty
Despite its promise, CBD’s impact as a drug has been mixed. Importantly, it is relatively safe. The side effects most commonly associated with a high dose of Epidiolex include digestive problems, rash and drowsiness, as well as the potential for liver damage in patients taking certain other medications. For example, Devinsky notes that patients who are receiving valproic acid to treat seizures or migraines might be at an elevated risk. But in many of the CBD trials conducted so far — particularly in the realm of antipsychotic drugs, which are known for their strong side effects — CBD has proved more tolerable than existing alternatives. “The side effects weren’t significantly worse than with placebo,” says McGuire of his 2018 study of CBD in people with schizophrenia 10 .
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The mechanism of CBD’s action on cannabinoid receptors, at least, is well understood. CBD can bind to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, which is the same receptor that THC seeks out in the brain. Unlike THC, however, CBD restrains rather than activates CB1 signalling, and therefore doesn’t induce the psychoactive effects of its cannabinoid cousin.