Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include blunted emotions, a decrease in the frequency of speech, a deterioration in the ability to plan, start or continue any activity, and a reduction in the perception of positive emotions or interest. These symptoms can cause severe problems in social interaction and daily life.
Have you wondered about CBD and its effect in treating schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a chronic and in many cases permanently disabling mental disorder that affects about one percent of the world’s population. According to the World Health Organization, more than 26,3 million people suffer from the disease, 16,7 million are disabled and it is accounted for 30.000 fatal outcomes a year, half of which take place in South East Asia.
The opposite effects of THC and CBD
The dose-response curve was also observed in healthy volunteers subjected to anxiety induced by the simulation of public speaking test and by public speaking in real settings. In the first situation, volunteers were asked to speak for a few minutes in front of a video camera, while in the second each subject had to speak in front of a group of other research participants. In both situations, treatment with CBD 300 mg was associated with significant decreases in anxiety symptoms, but this effect was not observed with lower or higher doses.
Very recently, in May this year, Antonio Waldo Zuardi an d José Alexandre Crippa from the University of São Paulo published an article in the Psychiatric Times, where they discuss the current stage of scientific evidence that supports the use of cannabidiol in schizophrenia, anxiety, and Parkinson disease.
The patient was given up to 1500 mg per day in two divided doses, with weekly reducing diazepam dose, which was being given for periods of great agitation and anxiety. The dose of diazepam was reduced from 16,3 to 5,7 mg per day. The improvements of her condition were observed in all the symptoms closely related to the psychosis, including thought disturbance and hostility-suspiciousness.
Topical applications may produce localized effects, but they are unlike to have any mental health benefits.
This suggests that more research involving more participants and well-designed studies is needed in order to better understand if, how, and why CBD works.
One of the most popular ways to take CBD is as an oil. Such products are made by combining CBD with some type of carrier oil, such as coconut oil. Some more recently developed products include dietary supplements, foods, beverages, lotions, salves, and cosmetics.
What Kind Should You Take?
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Before you try CBD, discuss your plan with your doctor. They may be able to recommend a dose and help you better understand any potential risks, complications, side effects, or interactions you might experience.
CBD is just one of hundreds of different compounds found in the cannabis plant. While cannabis has been used in holistic medicine for many years, only recently have researchers begun to explore some of the medicinal purposes for CBD and other cannabinoids.
If this dose does not have the desired effect, try increasing in increments of 5mg each week until the desired amount is reached.
Cannabinoids have been shown to decrease macroscopic inflammation, myeloperoxidase activity, and peristalsis, and to ameliorate inflammation in rodent studies.Naftali 2013, Wallace 2013 CBD demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in inflamed colonic tissue of inflammatory bowel disease explants.Couch 2017
CBD acts as an antagonist or partial antagonist at endogenous cannabinoid receptors (both CB1 and CB2 receptor types as well as other G-protein-coupled receptors [GPCRs]) by inhibiting full binding of direct ligands, and may act primarily at allosteric receptor sites. CBD acts as a modulator of receptor activation, influencing the endogenous cannabinoid system by potentiating intrinsic anandamide-mediated neurotransmission and regulating other cerebral neurotransmitters and receptors. It also modulates activity of various transient receptor potential channels and glycine receptors involved within and without the endocannabinoid system. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties have been described.Gaston 2017, Grant 2018, Martinez-Pinilla 2017, Pertwee 2008, Tzadok 2016
CBD has been evaluated for use in epilepsy, particularly as an adjuvant to standard therapy in resistant forms. Use in the management of various CNS disorders, as well as other conditions (eg, diabetes, graft-vs-host disease [GVHD], inflammatory bowel disease) has also been investigated. Clinical trials are ongoing.
A meta-analysis of data from 2 prospective clinical trials (N=291) (Devinsky et al and Thiele et al) reported CBD 20 mg/kg/day as adjunctive therapy is more likely than placebo to produce a greater than 50% reduction in seizures (relative risk [RR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.43); number needed to treat (NNT) was 8 for one person to achieve a 50% reduction in seizures.Stockings 2018 A further clinical study by the same group of researchers reports significant findings for both 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day dosages evaluating the same outcome measure (odds ratio for a greater than 50% reduction in seizures in the CBD 20 mg/kg/day group vs placebo was 3.85 [95% CI, 1.75 to 8.47; P<0.001]; and odds ratio for the CBD 10 mg/kg/day group vs placebo was 3.27 [95% CI, 1.47 to 7.26; P=0.003]).Devinsky 2018 These studies included both pediatric and adult patients with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Seizure aggravation, leading to treatment withdrawal of some participants, was reported.Perucca 2017
In one small randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (N=62), patents with noninsulin–treated type 2 diabetes received CBD, THCV, a combination of CBD and THCV, or placebo for 13 weeks. CBD and THCV were well tolerated. THCV decreased fasting plasma glucose and improved pancreatic beta cell function, adiponectin, and apolipoprotein A. CBD decreased resistin and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. However, the primary end point (change in HDL cholesterol) was not affected by treatment with CBD, THCV, or combination treatment.Jadoon 2016 More research is needed.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy of CBD in pregnancy and lactation is limited. The endocannabinoid system plays an role in regulation of fertility; cannabis use and/or disruptions to the endocannabinoid system have demonstrated negative effects on reproduction.Dekker 2012, Karasu 2011, Lewis 2012