Liquid water is held together by hydrogen bonds. (Liquid water has fewer hydrogen bonds than ice.) Oils and fats not have any polar part and so for them to dissolve in water they would have to break some of water�s hydrogen bonds. Water will not do this so the oil is forced to stay separate from the water.
Soap cleans oil and grease because one end of the soap molecule is polar and so is soluble in water, and the other end is non-polar and so similar to oil and grease. The soap molecules surround the grease leaving the water-soluble parts on the outside so the water can help wash the grease away. Thus, the soap molecule provides a link between two substances that would otherwise be immiscible.
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Leading Petroleum Producers
1. Saudi Arabia
3. United States
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration
Measuring peak oil uses the reserves-to-production ratio (RPR). This ratio compares the amount of proven oil reserves to the current extraction rate. The reserves-to-production ratio is expressed in years. The RPR is different for every oil rig and every oil-producing area. Oil-producing regions that are also major consumers of oil have a lower RPR than oil producers with low levels of consumption.
It is impossible to know the precise year for peak oil. Some geologists argue it has already passed, while others maintain that extraction technology will delay peak oil for decades. Many geologists estimate that peak oil might be reached within 20 years.
Refining petroleum is the process of converting crude oil or bitumen into more useful products, such as fuel or asphalt.
Oil or petroleum is a readily combustable fossil fuel that is composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen, and is thus known as a hydrocarbon.  The formation of oil takes a significant amount of time with oil beginning to form millions of years ago. 70% of oil deposits existing today were formed in the Mesozoic age (252 to 66 million years ago), 20% were formed in the Cenozoic age (65 million years ago), and only 10% were formed in the Paleozoic age (541 to 252 million years ago). This is likely because the Mesozoic age was marked by a tropical climate, with large amounts of plankton in the ocean. 
5. Oil is lighter than water, so as it escapes from the source oil shale it rises through pores in rocks, displacing water. Rock bodies that contain significant amounts of oil are known as reservoir rocks. For the oil to remain trapped in the reservoir, there must be some sort of thick, impermiable layer of rock to seal the reservoir. If this seal exists, then oil, gas, and water are trapped beneath and can be drilled into to obtain the oil. 
4. If temperatures of the kerogen are greater than 90°C but lower than 160°C, the kerogen is transformed into oil and natural gas. At temperatures higher than this, only natural gas (literally a gas that’s a hydrocarbon) or graphite is formed. This temperature range is known as the “oil window”.
3. If this shale is buried between 2 and 4 kilometers, its temperature increases due to its location in the Earths interior. This increasing pressure and temperature of the shale transforms it into a waxy material known as kerogen. Shale that contains this material is known as oil shale.
1. Dead plankton – both phytoplankton and zooplankton – as well as algae and bacteria sink to the bottom of an ancient ocean and mix with inorganic, clay-like materials that enter these oceans from streams and rivers. This creates an organic-rich mud. This mud can only form in still water environments. This step is shown in Figure 1, panel A.