There is one summary for S.1333. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.
Defines: (1) "cannabidiol-rich plant" to mean the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant with a tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis; (2) "cannabidiol" to mean the substance cannabidiol, as derived from a cannabidiol-rich plant; and (3) "tetrahydrocannabinol concentration" to mean the percent of the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol content per dry weight of any part of the plant Cannabis sativa L. or per volume of weight of marihuana product, or the combined percent of the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in any part of the plant Cannabis sativa L., regardless of moisture content.
Summary: S.1333 — 114th Congress (2015-2016)All Information (Except Text)
Amends the Controlled Substances Act to exclude cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich plants: (1) from the definition of "marihuana," and (2) from treatment as a controlled substance under such Act.
Therapeutic Hemp Medical Access Act of 2015
Declares that nothing in this Act shall be construed to restrict any activities related to the use, production, or distribution of marihuana in a state in which such activities are legal under state law.
A number of studies over the last two decades or more have reported that CBD has anti-seizure activity, reducing the severity of seizures in animal models. vi,vii In addition, there have been a number of case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting that CBD may be effective in treating children with drug-resistant epilepsy. viii,ix,x However, there have only been a few small randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; the total number of subjects enrolled in these studies was 48. Three of the four studies reported positive results, including decreased frequency of seizures. However, the studies suffered from significant design flaws, including failure to fully quantify baseline seizure frequency, inadequate statistical analysis, and a lack of sufficient detail to adequately evaluate and interpret the findings. viii Therefore, the currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; a recent Cochrane review concluded, there is a need for “a series of properly designed, high quality, and adequately powered trials.” xi
In addition to the research on the use of cannabinoids in palliative treatments for cancer—reducing pain and nausea and in increasing appetite—there are also several pre-clinical reports showing anti-tumor effects of CBD in cell culture and in animal models. xxviii These studies have found reduced cell viability, increased cancer cell death, decreased tumor growth, and inhibition of metastasis (reviewed in McAllister et al, 2015). xxix These effects may be due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD; xxx however these findings have not yet been explored in human patients. There are multiple industry sponsored clinical trials underway to begin to test the efficacy of CBD in human cancer patients.
Preclinical and Clinical Evidence
CBD is one of more than 80 active cannabinoid chemicals in the marijuana plant. ii Unlike the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not produce euphoria or intoxication. iii,iv,v Cannabinoids have their effect mainly by interacting with specific receptors on cells in the brain and body: the CB1 receptor, found on neurons and glial cells in various parts of the brain, and the CB2 receptor, found mainly in the body’s immune system. The euphoric effects of THC are caused by its activation of CB1 receptors. CBD has a very low affinity for these receptors (100 fold less than THC) and when it binds it produces little to no effect. There is also growing evidence that CBD acts on other brain signaling systems, and that these actions may be important contributors to its therapeutic effects. ii
There have been multiple clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of nabiximols on central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain. xxiii In addition, nabiximols is currently approved in Canada for the treatment of central neuropathic pain in MS and cancer pain unresponsive to opioid therapy. However, the current evidence suggests that the analgesia is mediated by THC and it is unclear whether CBD contributes to the therapeutic effects. xxiv THC alone has been shown to reduce pain; xxv,xxvi we are unaware of clinical studies that have explored the efficacy of CBD alone on pain. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD (discussed above) could be predicted to play a role in the analgesic effects of nabiximols. Recent research has also suggested that cannabinoids and opioids have different mechanisms for reducing pain and that their effects may be additive, which suggests that combination therapies may be developed that may have reduced risks compared to current opioid therapies. However, this work is very preliminary. xxvii
Rigorous clinical studies are still needed to evaluate the clinical potential of CBD for specific conditions. i However, pre-clinical research (including both cell culture and animal models) has shown CBD to have a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties.
The Controlled Substance Act (CSA) classifies marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug, but hemp remains legal so the therapeutic hemp oil products with CBD have become a common medical marijuana option.
Therapeutic hemp is used to make cannabis concentrate oils that are high in cannabidiol (CBD), rather than THC. The oil derived from therapeutic hemp is commonly referred to as cannabidiol hemp oil (CBD oil). Because of its lack of THC, therapeutic hemp does not get the user high.
The term therapeutic hemp refers to strains of cannabis that do not contain enough tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to render a psychoactive reaction when ingested by the user.
Maximum Yield Explains Therapeutic Hemp
Some of the therapeutic hemp concentrates feature 18 per cent CBD. Hemp oil and marijuana oil with high levels of CBD and virtually no tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the same. It is common for therapeutic hemp to find its way into topicals and beauty products, as well as edible forms, like gel caps. It can also be vaporized.
Therapeutic hemp is considered to be similar to the medicinal cannabis strains such as Charlotte’s Web, which is commonly used to gain relief from seizures or nausea.
Strains of therapeutic hemp have been bred intentionally for the medicinal marijuana industry to provide patients with elevated levels of cannabidiol (CBD), which is said to have therapeutic effects.
Note that therapeutic hemp is in opposition to industrial hemp, which is hemp that is grown specifically for its industrial uses, such as in the manufacturing of rope, textiles, and building materials.